Fairfax Morocco Barb

Helmsley Castle

Thomas, Lord Fairfax

Fairfax Morocco Barb, Buckingham Turk, Helmsley Turk, possibly Whiteshirt gr c 1665c. Sire Line Fairfax Morocco Barb.

Some of the following equine genealogy incorporates the original research of Highflyer.

Thomas Fairfax ("Black Tom") (1612-1671), Parliamentarian Commander, later 3rd Baron Fairfax, laid siege to Helmsley Castle in 1644. For a wound suffered there he was granted Helmsley Castle in 1651. In addition to the Helmsley estate he probably acquired the existing stock.

Some of that stock may have descended from that of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland, one of the wealthiest landowners of his day who numbered among his estates Helmsley, Belvoir Castle in Leicestershire and Haddon Hall in Derbyshire. The Manners family was one of the earlier recorded breeders of racing horses, noted for their "Belvoir Castle running strains" [Robertson:32]. In 1620 Lady Katherine Manners, only daughter of the 6th Earl, and over his objections, married George Villiers (1592-1628), Master of the Horse to King James I, who was created Duke of Buckingham in 1623. To her marriage she brought Helmsley and possibly the breeding stock located there.

The breeding stock at Helmsley is often thought to be native bred, however, imported oriental stock has been documented as early as the twelfth century. The Earl of Rutland himself recorded a desire to acquire a Barb from Italy in 1609, about the same time that Lord Cranbourne purchased one in Marseilles, whilst staying with the Duc de Guise [Early Records:79]. The General Stud Book in its chronological list of Arabians, Barbs and Turks presents Guise, the Duke of Rutland's Barb, before the Fairfax Morocco Barb [GSB 1:388] although there is no supporting evidence to connect the event with the horse. However, the notion that imported oriental stock was already being crossed with native stock at Helmsley prior to 1620 seems plausible.

Buckingham, favourite of King James I, imported many horses, both for himself and on behalf of the King. In June of 1623, Buckingham, in the fortuitous position of being both Master of the Horse and Lord High Admiral of the Navy, directed the Commissioner of the Navy to send to Madrid a ship with a capacity to transport as many as thirty-five horses which had been presented by the Spanish Court to the Prince of Wales, later King Charles I. Buckingham and the Prince had been to Spain to expedite the marriage of Charles to the Spanish Infanta, which failed to materialize. Later in August William Young recorded in his diary that "six horses and mares which the Marquis of Buckingham sent for into Barbary" made their way through Exeter [History of Newmarket 1:307].

Buckingham maintained his own Highe Wair stud and racing stable. In 1622 at Newmarket the Marquis of Buckingham's horse is said to have lost a 100 stake to a horse belonging to William Cecil (1591-1668), 2nd Earl of Salisbury (formerly Lord Cranbourne, above, who had acquired a Barb in Marseilles). In 1623 Highe Wair was home to twenty-two mares, five of which were Spanish and three of which were Barbary, along with stallions which were Barbaries, Rennetts and a courser [The History of Horse Racing:43].

As Mr Prior notes, Buckingham had access to many more imported horses than would have been needed for the royal studs or his own use and some of them were probably sent to Helmsley [Royal Studs:107].

After Buckingham's asssassination in 1628, his son George Villiers (1628-1687), who had been born at Wallingford House, Whitehall, and only a year old at the time, was raised and educated along with the children of the king. In 1635 his mother, the Dowager Duchess of Buckingham, married Randal MacDonnell (1609-1682), 2nd Earl and Marquess of Antrim, and presumably left Helmsley for Ireland where she died in 1649.

Thomas, Lord Fairfax, acquired Helmsley in 1651 as a "salve for a bad wound" he suffered at the seige of the castle in 1644 [Royal Studs:107]. Since there is no record of importation for the Fairfax Morocco Barb (gr c 1655c) it seems possible that he descended from the earlier Buckingham imports, perhaps crossed with original Helmsley stock. His famous mate, Old Bald Peg (f 1665c), may have also descended from the same stock.

There is no evidence that Fairfax himself ever lived at Helmsley, as it was at Nun Appleton that his daughter Mary was tutored by the poet Andrew Marvell, and had in fact left it indefensible and considerably damaged from the seige. While Fairfax had an interest in breeding war horses, (he had written a treatise on the subject), and had presented a horse of his breeding to King Charles II to ride to his coronation, no horses appear to have raced in his name and he is given credit for having bred only the Old Morocco Mare (f 1670c), suggesting that he probably retained some nominal share in the Helmsley horses until his death in 1671.

In 1657 Mary Fairfax, the only living daughter and heir of Lord Fairfax, married George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, whereby Helmsley was restored to him. He seems to have spent little time at Helmsley until after the death of King Charles II in 1685. Helmsley horses who had been confiscated, (1657-8, when Buckingham was detained at Windsor Castle), during Cromwell's tenure were formally returned by a warrant in 1661 from King Charles II which ordered the return of "one Turkish horse, one barbe, and five mares". It is possible that some of these horses were the sires and dams of the Fairfax Morocco Barb and Old Bald Peg.

The General Stud Book credits Buckingham as the breeder of Spanker (b c 1675c Darcy's Yellow Turk), thought the best horse on the turf in the reign of Charles II, from Lord Fairfax's Old Morocco Mare. The Fairfax Morocco Barb probably remained in Buckingham's custody until his death in 1687.

It seems reasonable to suggest that Fairfax Morocco Barb was known by that name between 1665 and 1671, the Buckingham or Helmsley Turk between 1671 and 1687, the Holderness Turk between 1682 and 1689, and finally, Whiteshirt after 1689.



Helmsley Turk

Helmsley Turk, Buckingham Turk, Fairfax Morocco Barb, Holderness Turk, probably Curwen's Grey Morocco Barb, possibly Whiteshirt gr c 1665c. Sire Line Helmsley Turk. The Turf Register notes that Bustler was "bred by Mr Place" and got by "the Duke of Buckingham's Turk, generally called the Helmsley Turk" [Pick 1:20]. In 1791 An Introduction to a General Stud-Book says that Dodsworth's Dam was sold at the age of twenty when in foal to the Helmsley Turk, the result of this mating being Vixen [Intro:203]. The Turf Register notes that Vixen "was got by the Earl of Holderness's Turk, out of the dam of Dodsworth" [Pick 1:72]. (This is not the same horse as the later stallion, Holderness Turk, who sired Old Royal and Hartley's Blind Horse). This information is significant in that it indicates the Helmsley Turk had probably been acquired by Conyers Darcy (1598-1689) who was created Earl of Holderness in 1682. Conyers Darcy was the older brother of James Darcy the elder (1617-1673) of Sedbury Park, the stud master to King Charles II. Best known for his sons, Helmsley Turk got Bustler, Darcy's Diamond, Hutton's Royal Colt, and possibly Place's White Turk (Darcy's White Turk) [see Family 2]. After the death of Conyers Darcy the Helmsley Turk probably passed into the custody of Henry Curwen and became known as Curwen's Grey Morocco Barb, below.

Helmsley Turk Mares
1. Vixen (f 1686c), a half-sister to Dodsworth (c 1670c), was possibly bred at Sedbury by James Darcy the younger (1650-1731). Following the death of King Charles II (1685) her dam, called Dodsworth's Dam, was sold for forty guineas to Mr Child by the stud master (Sutton Oglethorpe) when she was twenty years of age and in foal with Vixen [GSB 1:388]. She was later owned by Sir Walter Burdett and Robert Burdett, the latter the breeder of her daughter the Old Child Mare. Vixen was a foundation mare of Family 32.
2. Helmsley Turk Mare, taproot of Family 24, 4th dam of Bolton Starling (gr c 1727 Bay Bolton) and Camillus (gr c Bay Bolton). Helmsley Turk Mare was also 4th dam of Bolton Patriot (br c 1729 Bay Bolton).



Bustler (GB)

Bustler c 1675c (Helmsley Turk). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Bred by Rowland Place and probably owned by James Darcy the younger, in the old calendars his sire is given as the Buckingham Turk. Although he was said to have had a limited mare book, he nevertheless sired a number of worthy daughters and three useful stallion sons, Blunderbuss, Old Merlin and Darcy's Woodcock, the latter probably his best son.

Bustler Mares
1. Bustler Mare, the traditional taproot mare of Family 8, she was the 3rd dam of Hutton's Surley (gr c 1708 Hutton's Grey Barb).
2. Bustler Mare, taproot mare of Family 35.
3. Bustler Mare, taproot mare of Family 44.
4. Bustler Mare, a foundation mare of Family 54, and 2nd dam of Old Wyndham (gr c 1704 Hautboy).



Blunderbuss (GB)

Blunderbuss c 1690c (Bustler). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Bred at Sedbury by Lord Darcy, his notable contribution to the stud book was his daughter, Kitt Darcy's Royal Mare, from whom most of Family 13 descends. She was the dam of Old Royal (Holderness Turk), who sired the famous race mare Bald Charlotte (ch f 1721) and her full-sister Miss Brampton (ch f 1722), the latter the dam of Sir Edward O'Brien's good Irish race horse Fribble (b c 1746 Merry Andrew). Kitt Darcy's Royal Mare was also the dam of Sir Ralph Milbanke's Black Mare (bl f 1703 Makeless), dam of Hartley's Blind Horse (ch c 1712 Holderness Turk). The Royal Mare was also the 5th dam of Old Standard (b c 1736 Young Belgrade). Blunderbuss also sired Blunderbuss Mare, the 5th dam of Phantom (gr c 1737 Hobgoblin).



Merlin (GB)

Merlin [Old, Acklam] c 1695c (Bustler - Merlin's Dam, by unknown stallion). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Family 37. Old Merlin was bred by Sir Matthew Pearson at Lowthorpe, near Bridlington in Yorkshire, and later sold to Mr Acklom (sometimes Acklam or Acklem). Merlin was considered to be "in a very high form for racing, and allowed to be the best horse that had ever ran in the kingdom" [Pick 1:18]. He won a number of Plates and important matches, although he lost a match to the Duke of Bolton's Bay Bolton (br c 1705 Grey Hautboy), who had also been bred by Pearson. Merlin was involved in a famous match against one of Tregonwell Frampton's horses arranged by Sir William Strickland, an associate of Sir Matthew Pearson, prior to which the two runners took part in a private trial. In the trial each side, unbeknownst to the other, had added extra weight to their runners. Merlin won the trial by "more than a length of excellent running" [Pick 1:19]. Thus each side felt they would win the match, the logic being, on Merlin's side, that he had won carrying extra weight, and on the other, Frampton's horse had lost by only a length, therefore without the extra weight he would be sure to win. Unprecedented sums were wagered on the match which developed into a North-South contest, with some backers staking all their money and property. Merlin duly won the match by the same distance he had won the trial. As a consequence of the match a number of gentleman lost their fortunes, which subsequently came to the attention of parliament, following which legislation was enacted prohibiting wagering in excess of ten pounds. Little Merlin, as he was called in the popular verse which commemorates this match, entered the stud at Boynton, in east Yorkshire, a seat of the Strickland family, where he got several good daughters and three notable sons, Bethell's Castaway and Woodcock, and Richardson's Merlin.

Merlin Mares
1. Merlin Mare, taproot mare of Family 26, and 5th dam of Champion Sire King Herod (b c 1758 Tartar) and his half-brother Protector (br c 1770 Matchem).
2. Merlin Mare, taproot mare of Family 55.
3. Jester, bred by Sir Matthew Pearson and owned by Mr Darley, was the dam of Manica (b c 1707 Darley Arabian), a good runner who won several Plates and later sired Mr Humberston's Stump (b c 1724) who won Royal Plates at Nottingham, York and Lincoln along with other Plates and prizes. Jester was also the dam of Mr Darley's Skipjack (ch c 1710 Darley Arabian), who was less successful as runner than his brother Manica although he started at York in 1716 and 1717. In the stud Skipjack sired Lord Portmore's Croke (ch c 1729), who won Royal Plates at Ipswich and York as well as a 200 guineas match at Newmarket, and Miss Patty (ch f 1732), the grandam of the celebrated Macheath (b c 1774 Warren's Camillus).
4. Merlin Mare, 2nd dam of the good race horse Jack Come Tickle Me (ch c 1737 Thoulouse Barb Colt), bred and owned by Wilberforce Read, of Grimthorpe, near Market-Weighton, Yorkshire. Jack won Fifties at Newcastle, Durham, Beverley, Chipping-Norton, Earlshilton and York along with the annual Kiplingcotes Plate.



Castaway (GB)

Castaway [Bethell's] br c 1704 (Old Merlin - Sister to Ruffler, by Brimmer Colt). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Family 31. Bred and raced by Hugh Bethell of Rise, in Holderness, Yorkshire, he was described as "a moderate Plate horse" [Pick 1:20]. He may have been the Woodcock who in March of 1710 won a cup at Kiplingcotes, which was still in the possession of a family descendant when Mr Prior saw it. See Woodcock, below [Early Records:147]. In August of 1711 he started for a 20 Plate at York, won by Sir William Strickland's Castaway (gr c Woodcock) [Orton:2]. In the stud he got three useful mares.

Castaway Mares
1. Castaway Mare, bred by Mr Bethell, a foundation mare of Family 40, and dam of the famous race mare Bald Charlotte (ch c 1721 Old Royal).
2. Castaway Mare, sister to the above mare, dam of the Duke of Devonshire's Conqueror (gr c 1725 Fox) and of Captain Appleyard's Conqueror (ch g 1728 Fox), winner of six King's Plates, who is often called Brother to Conqueror. Castaway Mare was also the dam of Quiet Cuddy (ch c 1727 Fox) who sired Jenny Cameron* (b f 1742).
3. Castaway Mare, a foundation mare of Family 15, and 5th dam of the St Leger winner Tommy (ch c 1776 Wildair).



Woodcock (GB)

Woodcock b c 1715 (Old Merlin - Sister to Ruffler, by Brimmer Colt). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Family 31. Woodcock, brother to Castaway, was bred by Mr. Bethell and later sold to Mr. Raikes Fulthorpe. In July of 1721 he won the Royal Plate at York for six year olds against a large field, most of whom were distanced in the first heat due to a fall by the co-favourites, the Duke of Rutland's Proserpine and Mr. Frampton's gelding, some time after which both their jockeys died. The horses survived and met again in August for the Royal Plate at Lincoln, in which Woodcock defeated Mr. Frampton's gelding. However, in October for the Royal Plate at Newmarket, in which Woodcock was the favourite and heavily backed, the gelding was victorious. In April of 1722 Woodcock avenged his loss by winning the Royal Plate at Newmarket defeating the same gelding and Proserpine. This last match was said to have developed into a similar north-south contest to that which attended the earlier match between Old Merlin and one of Frampton's horses. Results of the Royal Plates just mentioned do not accord with those of Baily's Turf Register which suggests logic should not preclude the existence of a parallel universe. Mr. Prior suggests Woodcock's birth date was probably earlier than 1715, as a descendant of Mr. Bethell still retained a "very beautiful cup" with Woodcock's name engraved, and bearing the Royal Arms, which had been presented to him by Queen Anne for a victory at Bramham Moor in 1708 [Early Records:147]. However, this Woodcock would have been another horse as the Royal Plates the first Woodcock ran for in 1721 and 1722 were for six year olds. Woodcock left at least one mare, Grey Woodcock [Cheny1749:199 & Pick1:69]. Grey Woodcock (gr f 1720) was bred by John Croft, and became the dam of Croft's Egyptian Mare (ch f 1725 Croft's Egyptian) who placed 6th in the Royal Plate for mares at Hambleton in 1730, and was later the ancestress of the St. Leger winner The Duchess (b f 1813 Cardinal York).



Merlin (GB)

Merlin [Richardson's] c (Old Merlin). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. He sired the 3rd dam of Figure* (br c 1757 Hamilton's Figure), who was exported to America in 1765 and stood at Dr T Hamilton's Schoolfield stud in Maryland before moving on to New Jersey and New York.



Woodcock (GB)

Woodcock [Darcy's, Davill's] c 1695c (Bustler). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Woodcock was probably bred at Sedbury Park by James Darcy the younger. Although the General Stud Book expresses uncertainty that Darcy's Woodcock and Davill's Woodcock were the same horse [GSB 1:384], Pick's Turf Register records Brown Woodcock (dam of Lambton's Miss Doe) by Davill's Woodcock [Pick 1:41], while the General Stud Book states that Brown Woodcock was by Darcy's Woodcock [GSB 1:414], which suggests they were. Woodcock was best known for his daughters although Sir William Strickland's Castaway (gr c Woodcock) who ran at York in 1709 and won a £20 Plate at York in 1711 may have been his son. All the mares below, except Mad Darcy, are credited by one or more sources to Darcy's Woodcock.

Darcy's Woodcock Mares
1. Brown Woodcock (br f 1717), bred at Barforth, Yorkshire, by John Croft, 3rd dam of Lass of the Mill (b f 1745 Traveller), taproot mare of Family 2-m, and 5th dam of Old England Mare (b f 1766 Old England) taproot mare of Family 2-t.
2. Milbanke's Doll (b f 1721), a regally bred daughter of Queen Anne's Moonah Barb Mare, taproot of Family 21, was bred at Sedbury by James Darcy the younger and later owned by Sir Ralph Milbanke. Doll placed 3rd in the Royal Plate for mares at Hambleton in 1726, won by Bald Charlotte (ch f 1721 Old Royal), with 2nd place going to Mr Smith's Molly in the Moss (b f 1721) who was full sister to Williams' Squirrel (b c 1719 Snake). Doll was the dam of Rib (gr c 1736 Crab) a notable race horse and stallion.
3. Woodcock Thornton (ch f 1718), bred by John Croft, 3rd dam of King's Plate winner Williams' Forester (ch c 1750 Croft's Forester), and 5th dam of Squirrel Mare (f 1775 Squirrel), taproot mare of Family 2-b.
4. Old Woodcock Mare, taproot mare of Family 18, and 5th dam of Wyvill's Volunteer (b c 1735 Young Belgrade). She may have been the 3rd dam of Lord Essex's good runner Smiling Ball (c 1722c Merlin Colt) via Sister to Westbury.
5. Davill's Woodcock Mare, probably bred by James Darcy the younger, taproot mare of Family 19, and 3rd dam of Thunderbolt [ex-Badger] (gr c 1723 Wood's Counsellor) who was undefeated when running for Royal Plates.
6. Old Montague Mare, was owned by James Darcy the younger, after whose death she became the property of Andrew Wilkinson of Boroughbridge, Yorkshire. A foundation mare of Family 68, and dam of Sedbury (ch c 1734 Croft's Partner), a very good stallion.
7. Woodcock Mare, owned by Mr Wilkinson, taproot mare of Family 62, and 3rd dam of Bay Wilkinson (b c 1717 Snake), 4th dam of Grisewood's Partner (gr c 1730 Croft's Partner).
8. Woodcock Mare, 5th dam of Clockfast* (gr c 1780 Bay Richmond), a noted Virginia stallion.
9. Mad Darcy (ch f 1719), bred by Mr Hartley, produced at least ten offspring, none of which appear to have bred on.



Diamond (GB)

Diamond [Darcy's], possibly Bainton's Diamond b c 1680c (Helmsley Turk - Cowdray Montague Mare). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Family 12-a. In the Darcy stud at Sedbury, he sired Diamond Mare, a foundation mare of Family 37 and 3rd dam of Bay Bolton (br c 1705 Grey Hautboy), and Diamond Mare, a foundation mare of Family 57 and ancestress of the three Irish stallions Buffer (b c 1798 Prizefighter), Escape (ch c 1802 Commodore) and Rugantino ch c 1803 Commodore). He is possibly the same horse as Sir Robert Bainton's bay Diamond, by Whiteshirt.



Helmsley Turk Colt (GB)

Helmsley Turk Colt c 1680c (Helmsley Turk). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Said to be the sire of Morgan's Dun and Sister to Morgan's Dun, the latter the 5th dam of Lord Portmore's Chub (b c 1741 Devonshire Blacklegs) and Lord Portmore's Grey Childers (gr c 1727 Bartlet's Childers), as well as their half-sister Little Bowes (f Chedworth's Monkey), a matron in Family 2. There is reason to doubt the integrity of the dam line of Bowes. The Helmsley Turk Colt is possibly the same horse as Place's White Turk.



Hutton's Royal Colt (GB)

Hutton's Royal Colt c 1685c (Helmsley Turk - Royal Sedbury Mare). Sire Line Helmsley Turk. Said by the General Stud Book to have been bred by Sir William Ramsden and sold to Mr Hutton in 1700 [GSB 1:382]. He may have been the same horse as Darcy's Royal Colt, who sired the dam of Mr Lister's race horse Dunkirk (gr c 1726 Fox Cub), although Darcy's Royal Colt appears to date somewhat later and may himself be instead the same horse as the Royal Colts belonging to Mr Dalton and Mr Hatton. Hutton's Royal Colt sired the 6th dam of Marske (br c 1750 Squirt). He also got the Fen Mare, 3rd dam of dam of King's Pate winner Black Chance (bl c 1732 Hutton's Bay Barb), the good race horse Moorcock (gr c 1740 Hutton's Blacklegs) and King's Plate winner Phantom (gr c 1737 Hobgoblin).


  Place's White Turk

Place's White Turk, Darcy's White Turk, Sedbury Turk gr c 1670c (Helmsley Turk). Sire Line Place's White Turk. According to tradition Place's White Turk was acquired in Aleppo by the Levant Company at the request of Oliver Cromwell, and arrived at Gravesend via Holland in 1657, on the ship Dartmouth, accompanied by Nicholas Baxter, Cromwell's Gentleman of the Horse. Presumably the Turk would have joined Crowmell's other horses who were said to be at Hampton Court [History of Newmarket 2:213]. After Cromwell's death Rowland Place, Cromwell's studmaster, was thought to have removed the Turk to Dinsdale in North Yorkshire where he was thence known as Place's White Turk.

This tradition was based on John Cheny's speculation that identified the horse with Cromwell's import, and is unlikely. Cheny said: "The White Turk that got Wormwood, and also the Great Grand-Dam of Windham, I suppose to be the Turk of Mr Place's, Stud-Master to the Lord Protector Cromwell; but this I am not absolutely certain of" [Cheny 1744:x]. In all pedigrees Place's White Turk appears later than Darcy's Yellow Turk. Offspring of Place's White Turk occupy an approximate time span between 1680 and 1700.

Cheny's remark appears to be the original source for the information that Mr Place was "Stud-Master" to Cromwell, which has yet to be confirmed by another authority. Mr Prior found it "remarkable that Rowland Place should have accepted office under Cromwell, as his father was a devoted Royalist, and had to compound for his estate under the Commonwealth" [Early Records:20]. In the genealogical table drawn from Dugdale's Visitation there is no mention of Rowland Place occupying such a prominent position under Cromwell, while there is note that his son Francis Place was a celebrated painter. Author Roy Sherwood* advises that in an article by C H Firth on 'Cromwell's View on Sport' in Macmillan's Magazine', October 1894, Firth states that "A modern biographer, Mr Waylen, boldly asserts that 'races continued in Hyde Park during the Protectorate; and Dick Pace, the owner of divers horses who live in racing chronicles, was the Protector's stud-groom'." Firth goes on to say that Waylen "gives no authority for these statements, and neither of them is confirmed by contemporary evidence". The book Firth refers to is The House of Cromwell by James Waylen (1880). Sherwood suggests that perhaps Richard (Dick) Pace might at some point have been confused with R(owland) Place. It is also possible that stud groom and stud master were different occupations. Nevertheless, the possibility remains that Mr Place's position may have been no more than another speculation.

*Roy Sherwood's books include: The Court of Oliver Cromwell (1st American edition, Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, NJ, 1977; paperback Willingham Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989); Oliver Cromwell King In All But Name 1653-1658 (St Martin's Press, NY, 1997; Willingham Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).

Through the years there has been constant and continuing controversy whether Place's White Turk was the same horse as Darcy's White Turk. While no definitive proof is available, it is certain that if there were two Turks, both Turks were covering during the same time span in the vicinity of Bedale, Yorkshire, that both of them were often bred to daughters or descendants of the Darcy Yellow Turk (also called Dodsworth) and that neither was ever mated with daughters of the other.

In a pedigree for Creeper attested to by James Darcy, he said that "Blunderbush Royall's dam was out of my own Gray Royall, and got by the White Turk". Mr. Prior observed that for horses belonging to himself James Darcy always used the term "my," which suggests that there were two White Turks [Early Records:36]. However, since the White Turk would have first belonged to Mr. Place, Darcy would have been unlikely to call him "my" Turk while he was the property of Mr. Place. There is also the speculation that Darcy called him simply "the" Turk because there was only one of them.

Place's White Turk left a number of daughters who were invaluable to the development of bloodstock breeding as well as two sons, Croft's Commoner and Wormwood.

Place's White Turk Mares

Trumpet's Dam, probably bred at Sedbury, from whom most of Family 4 descends.

2. Place's White Turk Mare, a foundation mare of Family 1.
3. Place's White Turk Mare, traditional taproot mare of Family 28, however, she may instead descend from Family 2.
4. Place's White Turk Mare, foundation mare of Family 54, and 3rd dam of Old Wyndham (gr c 1704c Hautboy).
5. Place's White Turk Mare, bred in Yorkshire by John Hutton of Marske, taproot mare of Family 58.
6. Old Thornton Mare, 4th dam of King's Pate winner Black Chance (bl c 1732 Hutton's Bay Barb), the good race horse Moorcock (gr c 1740 Hutton's Blacklegs) and King's Plate winner Phantom (gr c 1737 Hobgoblin).



Commoner (GB)

Commoner [Croft's, Old] c 1695c (Place's White Turk). Sire Line Place's White Turk. Bred in Yorkshire by Mr Crofts of Barforth, his dam has not been identified. He got the well-known Warton's Commoner along with several useful daughters.

Croft's Commoner Mares

Somerset Mare, a foundation mare of Family 28, was probably bred by Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset. She was later in the 2nd Duke of Ancaster's stud, where she produced the stallion Governor (c 1709c St. Martin) and two daughters who bred on, Virgin (ch f 1712 Ancaster Merlin), and the Pudding Mare. The Duke of Ancaster's Virgin ran last in a field of twenty-one for the Gold Cup at Hambleton in 1717 [Orton:8]. Most of the family descends from Virgin, while the Pudding Mare was the 5th dam of Spark* (c 1733c Aleppo).

2. Firetail's Dam (f 1710c), dam of two very good daughters, Jackson's Favourite (gr f 1725 Alcock's Arabian) and Mother Neasham (b f 1720 Hartley's Blind Horse), in Family 75. See Wormwood, below.
3. Commoner Mare, 3rd dam of the Marquis of Granby's King's Plate winner Granby (b c 1759 Blank).



Commoner (GB)

Commoner [Warton's] gr c 1710c (Croft's Commoner - Creeping Molly, by Curwen's Bay Barb - Mare, by Little Mountain Barb [White Legged Lowther Barb] - Foreign Mare). Sire Line Place's White Turk. Bred by Sir Michael Warton, he was also called Grey Commoner and Onslow's Commoner. Although the General Stud Book feels that his dam was the dam of Creeping Molly [GSB 1:379], other sources, including the Turf Register, indicate that his dam was Creeping Molly herself, a "favourite Mare of Sir Michael's called Creeping Molly" [Pick 1:113]. Ernest Hutton, who had a portrait of Creeping Molly in his extensive collection, noted that she was grey and produced Lord Onslow's Commoner, who was also known as Grey Commoner, by Croft's Commoner [British Racehorse, September 1951]. According to Cuthbert Routh's stud book Creeping Molly's dam was "got by a little White leggd Barb of Mr Curwen's, out of a mare nobody can give any acct of" [Early Records:27]. Mr Prior suggests that the Somerset Mare in the 2nd Duke of Ancaster's stud was got by Warton's Commoner, however, by dates it seems more likely that her sire was Old Commoner [Early Records:87]. In 1718 Lord Onslow's Commoner won a match against the Duke of Warton's Winchindon [Baily's Racing Register]. In the stud he left no relevant sons, however, his daughter Mr Witty's Commoner Mare contributed to Family 40, being the 2nd dam of George Witty's Grenadier (b c 1746 Blaze) and possibly of Jenny Cameron* (b f 1742 Quiet Cuddy). Another daughter, Mr Witty's Commoner Mare (gr f 1724), ran in the Royal Plate for five year old mares at Hambleton in 1729, won by Mr Egerton's Nanny (gr f 1724 Pigot Turk) [Orton:24].



Wormwood (GB)

Wormwood c (Place's White Turk). Sire Line Place's White Turk. Despite the numerous times he is mentioned by various sources as being a prominent son of the white Turk, his only appearance in the stud book seems to be as the sire of Wormwood Mare, taproot mare of Family 75. Wormwood Mare was the 3rd dam of the King's Plate winner Mr Jackson's Favourite (gr f 1725 Alcock's Arabian), also known as the Gardiner's Mare. Wormwood Mare was also the 3rd dam of the celebrated race mare Mother Neasham (b f 1720 Hartley's Blind Horse) who won the Annual Plate at Kiplingcotes an unprecendented five times.


  Darcy's White Turk
  Darcy's White Turk, Sedbury Turk, Place's White Turk, gr c 1670c (Helmsley Turk). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk.
Owned by James Darcy the younger of Sedbury Park, only ten miles or so from the Dinsdale stud of Rowland Place, and probably acquired on the death of Rowland Place in 1676, at which time his name would have changed from Place's White Turk to Darcy's White Turk. His known offspring were bred from daughters of Darcy's Yellow Turk and a Royal Mare. His daughter Grey Royal contributed to Family 13 and another daughter, Bay Darcy, was probably the dam of Lonsdale's Counsellor (c 1685c Shaftesbury Turk). He got two sons, Hautboy and Luggs; Hautboy exerted considerable influence on the stud book.

Hautboy (GB)

Hautboy c 1685c (Darcy's White Turk - Royal Mare). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Hautboy was bred in Yorkshire by James Darcy the younger at Sedbury. Pick says he was never trained for racing [Pick 1:5], although Cook says he lost a 200 guineas each match in April of 1698 at Newmarket to Mr Rowe's Quainton [A History of the English Turf 1:118]. John Hervey (1665-1751), later Lord Bristol, recorded in his diary for April 11, 1698, that his Hautboy lost to Quainton [Royal Studs:190]. Hore also records this as a match between Mr Harvey's Hoboy and Mr Rowe's Quainton [History of Newmarket 3:214]. However, there is no evidence connecting the runner called Hautboy to the sire called Hautboy and it is likely that they were two different horses. The possibility exists that Lord Bristol's Hautboy was the same horse as Grey Hautboy. Hautboy, the stallion, also called Wilkes's Old Hautboy, probably covered at the Wilkes' stud in Yorkshire, where he got numerous valuable daughters and several good stallion sons, including Clumsey, Grey Hautboy and Wyndham.

Hautboy Mares
1. Grey Wilkes, also called Old Wilkes, was bred by Mr Wilkes and later owned by Mr Robinson of Easby. Full sister to the stallion Clumsey (gr c 1700c Hautboy), sire of Fox (b c 1714), among her offspring were the race mare Old Country Wench (gr f 1712 Snake) and the invaluable brood mare Sister to Old Country Wench (f 1713c Snake), she the dam of Squirt (ch c 1732 Bartlett's Childers).
2. Hautboy Mare, probably owned by Matthew Lister, dam of Snake (c 1705c Lister Turk) and Brother to Snake.
3. Hautboy Mare, a foundation mare of Family 12 and Family 12-g, and 4th dam of Eclipse (ch c 1764 Marske).
4. Old Wen Mare, owned by Sir John Parsons, sister to Clumsey and Grey Wilkes, dam of the Champion Sire Alcock's Arabian (gr c 1712c Curwen's Bay Barb).
5. Hautboy Mare, owned by Mr Brewster Darley, taproot mare of Family 53, dam of, among others, Aleppo (b c 1711 Darley Arabian), Almanzor (b c 1713 Darley Arabian), Graham's Champion (b c 1707 Harpham Arabian) and Terror br c 1711 Acaster Turk).
6. Hautboy Mare, 3rd dam of Bowes (Hutton's Grey Barb), the latter the dam of Lord Portmore's Chub (b c 1741 Devonshire Blacklegs) and Grey Childers (gr c 1727 Bartlet's Childers), and Little Bowes (Chedworth's Monkey), a useful matron in Family 2. This Hautboy Mare probably never existed, as she is said to have belonged to Mr Place, who died in 1676, and to have come from the stud of Oliver Cromwell, which would have been before 1658. She was liklely confused with the Coffin Mare who was herself confused with the Coppin Mare.
7. Sister to Trumpet, dam of the good matron Croft's Pet Mare (Wastell's Turk) of Family 4, she the 2nd dam of Young Cartouch (ch c 1731 Cartouch).
8. Old Clubfoot, bred by Mr Wilkes, a foundation mare of Family 34, and 2nd dam of Hutton's Blacklegs (c 1725 Hutton's Bay Turk) and Routh's Surley (gr c 1720 Hutton's Surley).
9. Hautboy Mare, a foundation mare of Family 44.
10. Hautboy Mare, a foundation mare of Family 57.
11. Hautboy Mare, 4th dam of Old Standard (b c 1736 Young Belgrade).
12. Hautboy Mare, 3rd dam of Alicroker (f 1753 Regulus), she the 3rd dam of Clockfast* (gr c 1780 Bay Richmond).
13. Hautboy Mare, said to be the 3rd dam of Lord Portmore's Dabster* (ch c 1736 Fox), who ran in England before export to Virginia in 1741, where he joined the stud of John Carter and later that of William Byrd III.
14. Hautboy Mare, 3rd dam of the Duke of Somerset's Cinnamon (ch c 1722 Wyndham).
15. Hautboy Mare, may have been the dam of Bristol's Hog, owned by John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, of Ickworth, Sussex. The General Stud Book notes that Lord Bristol's Hog was "of the Hautboy sort" [GSB 1:10], while the Turf Register says Hog was "from the kind of Hautboy" [Pick 1:35], suggesting that his dam was by Hautboy. His sire has not been identified. Hog was purchased from Mr Boucher, a "well-known Yorkshire racing man" in 1698 [Early Records:70] and won 450 guineas for Lord Bristol in November of the same year at Newmarket, beating Headpiece [Royal Studs:206]. His only offspring appears to have been Hog Mare, a foundation mare of Family 30, and dam of Golden Locks and Sister to Golden Locks, who between them produced Bolton Looby (br c 1728 Bay Bolton), Syphax (bl c 1727 Bay Bolton), Gentleman (gr c 1723 Alcock's Arabian), Ancaster Creeper (ch c.1733 Cinnamon) and others.

Clumsey (GB)

Clumsey gr c 1700c (Hautboy - Miss Darcy's Pet Mare). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 11. Bred by Mr Wilkes who also bred his full-sister, Grey Wilkes. The description from a portrait of Fox notes that he was sired by Sir George Warburton's Clumsey. The Turf Register records that he was the property of Sir John Parsons [Pick 1:5]. In the stud Clumsey got two sons who bred on, the Champion Sire Fox, and Fox Cub.

Fox (GB) b c 1714 (Clumsey - Bay Peg, by Leedes Arabian). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 6.

Fox Cub (GB)

Fox Cub b c 1714 (Clumsey - Charming Jenny, by Leedes Arabian). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 6. Fox Cub was bred Sir Ralph Assheton, from one of the two mares he had purchased from Anthony Leedes, of North Milford, near Tadcaster in Yorkshire, both mares having been covered by Clumsey. One mare produced Fox, and the other, Fox Cub. Fox Cub, who was also called Squirrel, was later sold to Matthew Lister. In 1722 Mr Lister's Fox Cub won a 30 Plate at York, beating the Marquis of Carmarthen's Spot, Mr Ovington's Stradler, Sir Michael Warton's Garnet, Mr Stapleton's Sly and Lord Tankerville's Cuddy. In 1723 he placed 3rd in a 30 Plate at York, won by Mr Brewster Darley's Now or Never. He was said to have won several additional plates and prizes. The English stud book of 1791 noted that "Fox-Cub was a good little horse, but a bad stallion" [Intro:175]. His best son was probably Mr Lister's good runner Dunkirk (gr c 1726), who won the Ladies' Plate at York along with many other races, and later became a stallion. He also got several good daughters, among them Mr Hutton's Fox Cub Mare, the 3rd dam of Marske (br c 1750 Squirt), Miss Vixen, dam of David* (b c 1756 Gower Stallion), and Slighted By All, dam of the Duke of Cleveland's Dainty Davy (b c 1752 Traveller).

Crutches (GB)

Crutches gr g 1705 (Hautboy - Mare, by Selaby Turk). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 54. A full brother to Wyndham, he was owned by Sir Ralph Milbanke. In 1712 he won a 25 Plate at York, beating Mr. Nicholson's Smallhopes, Lord Irwin's Ringtail, Mr. Curwen's Creeper, Mr. Sunderland's Simon and two others. In 1713 he again won the 25 Plate at York, beating in two heats Lord Falconberg's Cripple, Lord Molyneux's Mixbury and others.

Grey Hautboy (GB)

Grey Hautboy gr c 1695c (Hautboy). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Bred by Sir William Strickland, his dam is not identified in the General Stud Book, however, Whyte shows him from Lord Arlington's Barb Mare, the taproot of Family Family 43 [Whyte 1:530], which seems unlikely. On the frame of a portrait of his son, Bay Bolton, Grey Hautboy is said to have been a "large grey horse" who was bred by "a f_rmer of Sir William Strickland's" [Taunton 1:10]. In the stud he got the two very good race horses, Bay Bolton, who was also a Champion Sire, and Lamprie, along with Grey Ramsden, as well as a few good mares.

Grey Hautboy Mares

Sister to Bay Bolton (gr f 1710c), bred by Sir Matthew Pierson from his famous black Makeless Mare, ancestress of most of Family 37, and dam of the useful stallion Spinner (gr c 1727 Almanzor). Spinner was bred by William Osbaldeston of Hunmanby, Yorkshire, and sold to Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore.

2. Bay Lusty, also a sister to Bay Bolton, was the 8th dam of Spectre (b c 1815 Phantom) who was sent to France in 1834.

Bay Bolton (GB) br c 1705 (Grey Hautboy - Mare, by Makeless). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 37.
Grey Ramsden (GB)

Grey Ramsden gr c 1704 (Grey Hautboy - Mare, by Byerley Turk). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 1. Bred by Sir William Ramsden, 2nd Baronet, of Byram, near Ferrybridge, Yorkshire, Grey Ramsden was "allowed to be one of the best Plate Horses of his time" [Pick 1:xvii]. In 1710 he won a 20 Plate at York, defeating Mr Curwen's Flatface, Lord Carlisle's Pepper and Mr Childers's Whitenose. He also won several other Plates and Prizes. He sired Grey Ramsden Mare, 2nd dam of John Brewster Darley's Little Thought On (c 1736 Harlequin), a race horse in the Darley stables at Aldby Park in Yorkshire.

Lamprie (GB) gr c 1716 (Grey Hautboy - Mare, by Makeless). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 37.
Hautboy Colt (GB)

Hautboy Colt (Hautboy). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Said to be the sire of Lord Darcy's Queen, the 4th dam of the great Sampson (bl c 1745 Blaze).

Wyndham (GB) gr c c1704 (Hautboy - Mare, Selaby Turk). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Family 54.
Luggs (GB)

Luggs c 1685c (Darcy's White Turk). Sire Line Darcy's White Turk. Luggs was bred at Sedbury, in Yorkshire, by James Darcy the younger from a "foreign mare" [GSB 1:382]. Cuthbert Routh's stud book records this mare as a "Neopolitan" mare [Early Records:28]. His only known offspring seems to have been Luggs Mare, 2nd dam of Thunderbolt (gr c 1723 Wood's Counsellor), a foundation mare of Family 19.


Whiteshirt , possibly Fairfax's Morocco Barb c 1665c. Although mentioned only by name in the General Stud Book, in 1726 Whiteshirt was described in Cuthbert Routh's stud book as "old famous White Shirt" [Early Records:37]. In those days the word "famous" also had the meaning of "in good repute" or "reputable". This description appears in the pedigree of a mare who was sister to Hanniball's dam, who was one of Routh's brood mares, and descended from horses bred by or associated with Henry Curwen. The Whiteshirt Mare was said to be a full sister to Sir Robert Bainton's bay Diamond. Sir Robert Bainton (or Baynton) was Keeper of the Race Horses at Newmarket to King Charles II and Keeper of the Running Horses at Newmarket to King William III, succeeded in this post by Tregonwell Frampton [Ye Olde New-Markitt Calendar:14]. His bay Diamond may possibly be Darcy's Diamond, who is said to be sired by the Helmsley Turk. Bay Diamond by Whiteshirt would be the same horse as Darcy's Diamond by the Helmsley Turk, and since the Helmsley Turk was Fairfax's Morocco Barb, then Whiteshirt was also Fairfax's Morocco Barb. Sister to Diamond, the Whiteshirt Mare, was a notable matron of Family 12-a.