|Darcy's Yellow Turk
James Darcy, Lord Navan
Chesnut Arabian, probably Dodsworth] c 1670c. Sire Line
Some of the following equine genealogy incorporates the original research of Highflyer.
As one of the earliest stallions recorded in the Stud Book and moreover an ancestor of every living thoroughbred, he has been the object of much speculation, both as to his origins and to the unique colour ascribed to him.
The General Stud Book says only that he was "the sire of Spanker, Brimmer, and the great great grandam of Cartouch" [GSB 1:389]. Lady Wentworth said he was presented to the Pasha of Damascus around 1658, and that he was otherwise known as "Orange," but does not reveal her source for this information [Thoroughbred Racing Stock:269]. Alexander Mackay-Smith developed a hypothesis that he was not imported, but sired by Place's White Turk in England. This was, however, based on the assumption that Place's White Turk had been imported in 1657 [Speed and the Thoroughbred:126]. Highflyer, who provides persuasive evidence, says he was the horse known as Dodsworth, imported in utero and foaled in England.
Darcy's Yellow Turk is generally thought to have been first owned or managed by James Darcy the elder (1617-1673), stud master to King Charles II, whose reign extended from 1660 to 1685. However, Darcy had negotiated a contract with the king to supply the king with "twelve choice horses" annually in exchange for a payment of £800. Although Darcy had included the use of two stallions in his original draft this request seems to have been ignored in the final agreement. [Early Records:10]
While Dodsworth is said by some sources to have been owned by the king himself, no racehorses were bred at Hampton Court during this period, since the royal stables then were being supplied by Darcy. It is also possible that Dodsworth belonged to the Dodsworth family that was related by marriage to Darcy's brother, Conyers, the 1st Earl of Holderness. In any case no importations are credited to Darcy and it is reasonable to suppose that he had access to Dodsworth. Despite the General Stud Book's insistence that Dodsworth stood at Hampton Court, it seems likely that he stood at Sedbury and that his name was changed to Darcy's Yellow Turk when he took up residence there.
The Darcy family seat had long been at Hornby Castle, near Bedale, in Yorkshire. Darcy acquired Sedbury Park, near Richmond, Yorkshire, from Sir Marmaduke Wyvill (who had acquired it from the Gascoigne family), either by purchase or through his marriage to Sir Marmaduke's daughter Isabel (sources vary). After the death of James Darcy the elder in 1673 Sedbury Park and the management of the Yellow Turk passed on to his son James Darcy the younger (1650-1731), later 1st Baron Darcy of Navan, in Ireland.
There has been much modern speculation over the colour of Darcy's Yellow Turk. Even though he was identified as the older of the Darcy's Chesnut Arabians [Royal Studs:94], he was earlier called the Yellow Turk.
Given that people were familiar with the term "gold," the use of "yellow" in his name invites speculation. The term "dun" was used to refer to buckskin, and possibly palomino. The dilute (or cream) gene may be expressed as either buckskin or palomino and may hide behind black and grey. Although the dilute gene had always been available in the thoroughbred gene pool, as racehorse portraits of this era clearly show, names had not yet been invented to cover the range of the colours expressed.
In the inventory of the Tutbury Stud, which had belonged to King Charles I before his execution in 1649, an entry is recorded for a son of Fantus: "One dun Horse with a black tayle and mane, a starre and a white speck on the nose, 6 yeares oulde". The same inventory includes two offspring of Black Morocco, one a "Dunn filly" and the other a "Yellow filly," which suggests there was a distinction made between those two colours. Others colours recorded in this inventory are black, browne and grey. It may be worthy of note that a number of horses were described as "sorrill" and the term "chesnut" does not appear to be in use as yet [Royal Studs:58]. Given that most of the usual colours are present in this inventory it seems reasonable to speculate that "yellow" may have been utilised at this time to indicate palomino.
pedigree of Morgan's Dun, so called in the General Stud Book
although his colour is not given, Highflyer's argument that the
Darcy Yellow Turk is the same horse as Dodsworth might explain
the appearance of the Dun's colour.
Darcy's Yellow Turk, whatever his colour, exerted a profound influence on the stud book through his well known sons Spanker, Brimmer and the Oglethorpe Arabian.
His daughters were influential as well. An unnamed mare was the 2nd dam of Kitt Darcy's Royal Mare (f Blunderbuss) from whom most of Family 13 descends. Another unnamed daughter was the 3rd dam of Hampton Court Childers (c 1725c) and his sister, she the dam of the Irish Ground Ivy (c 1737). Yet another daughter, Sister to Spanker, was the dam of the Lonsdale Counsellor.
He is also said to have sired the 4th dam of Cartouch (c 1717c Bald Galloway), although the pedigree given for Cartouch usually shows Dodsworth in this position. See Trumpet's Dam for an explanation.
[Pelham's Bay Arabian] b c 1675c (Darcy's Yellow Turk - Old Morocco
Mare, by Fairfax Morocco
Barb). Sire Line
Yellow Turk. Family 6.
Young Spanker (GB)
c 1695c (Spanker). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. The Turf Register notes that Spanker was the sire of "Mr Curwen's Young Spanker" [Pick 1:11]. As mentioned above, in the pedigree of the Bolton Fearnought he is called "Sir William Ramsden's Spanker" in Heber, and a "Son of Spanker" in Cheny. He sired the grandam of the Bolton Fearnought (br c 1725 Bay Bolton), Brother to Fearnought, and Young Spanker Mare, a foundation mare of Family 44. Possibly he sired Old Sophonisba (ro f 1711) as well, she was owned by Mr Leedes and a celebrated racemare.
St. Martin (GB)
c 1695c (Spanker - Burton's Barb Mare). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Family 2. Bred and raced by Philip, 1st Duke of Wharton, in April of 1701 he won "an extraordinary fine match and for a good deal of money" against the Duke of Devonshire's Dimple, who was said to be the earliest recorded winner of The Whip. After his turf career St. Martin joined the stud of Robert Bertie, who succeeded his father as 4th Earl of Lindsey in 1701, was created Marquis of Lindsey in 1706 and finally 1st Duke of Ancaster in 1716, at Grimsthorpe, Lincolnshire, and after his death in 1722 St. Martin, then about twenty-seven years of age, is said to have continued in that capacity for Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster [Early Records:78]. Among his progeny that bred on were the Old Lady Mare, the Pudding Mare and Governor. The Old Lady Mare was a foundation mare of Family 14 and 2nd dam of the good racehorse and useful sire Ancaster's Driver (gr c 1727 Wynn's Arabian). The Pudding Mare (sister to Governor) was the 5th dam of Spark* (c 1733c Aleppo).
c 1709c (St. Martin - Somerset Mare, by Crofts' Commoner). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Family 28. Bred in the Ancaster stud he got the Governor Mare, 3rd dam of the half-sisters Countess (gr f 1760 Blank) and Sprightly (gr f 1753 Ancaster Starling) of Family 30. Countess produced the very good stallion Delpini (gr c 1781 Highflyer) and Horatia, the dam of two Derby winners, Archduke (br c 1796 Sir Peter Teazle) and Paris (br c 1803 Sir Peter Teazle). Sprightly was the 3rd dam of the Ascot Gold Cup winner Master Jackey (ch c 1804 Johnny).
c 1685c (Darcy's Yellow Turk - Royal Mare). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Bred by Lord Darcy, he sired a number of good daughters and two sons, Brimmer Colt and Burford Bull.
Brimmer Colt (GB)
c (Brimmer). Bred by the Darcy family, and said to have been "well-bred", he apparently died young. He got Bethell's Ruffler (ch c 1699c), sire of Portmore's Victorious (gr c 1722) and Sister to Ruffler, a foundation mare of Family 31, and dam of the brothers Castaway (br c 1704 Old Merlin) and Woodcock (b c 1715 Old Merlin).
Burford Bull (GB)
c (Brimmer - Layton Barb Mare). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Family 4. Bred by Lord Darcy, he sired two significant daughters, one a foundation mare in the family of Wilkinson's Favourite, the other the ancestress of Figure* (br c 1757 Hamilton's Figure).
According to the General Stud Book he "may be the horse described as Mr Oglethorpe's son of the Yellow Turk," however, GSB also says that Darcy's Yellow Turk was "the sire of Spanker, Brimmer, and the great great grandam of Cartouch" without mentioning the Oglethorpe Arabian [GSB 1:389]. Lord Rockingham's collection of pedigrees includes that of Makeless, which says: "Makeless was got by General Oglethorpe's Arabian; dam by Lord D'Arcy's Yellow Turk; out of a natural Barb Mare which Sir Jno Lawson (a Sea Admiral) bought from Barbary and gave to King Charles, who gave her to Lord d'Arcy" [Sheffield Archives R193/49]. This results in a pedigree wherein Makeless is inbred 2x2 to the Darcy Yellow Turk, which would make it seem that Oglethorpe Arabian was less likely to have been a son of Darcy's Yellow Turk and more likely that he has been casually misidentified as Oglethorpe's Son of the Yellow Turk. However, it is also possible that Oglethorpe's son of the Yellow Turk was a brother to the dam of Makeless.
Oglethorpe's Arabian's most important son was Makeless. He also sired Bald Frampton, described as "a high formed galloway about whom the persistent legend is invariably told that he beat the Duke of Devonshire's Dumplin, or Dimple, for the whip" [Cook 1:168].
Son of the Yellow Turk (GB)
c 1680c (Darcy's Yellow Turk). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Although the General Stud Book notes that the Oglethorpe Arabian "may be the horse described as Mr Oglethorpe's son of the Yellow Turk," GSB also says that Darcy's Yellow Turk was "the sire of Spanker, Brimmer, and the great great grandam of Cartouch" without mentioning the Oglethorpe Arabian [GSB 1:389]. He sired the dam of Mr Egerton's White Stockings (ch c 1710 Wood's Counsellor).
c 1685c (Oglethorpe Arabian - Mare, by Darcy's Yellow Turk - Natural Barb Mare). Sire Line Oglethorpe Arabian. A pedigree for Makeless (see above) is recorded in Lord Rockingham's collection of breeders' certificates. This pedigree appears to have been taken from Brown's copy of Sir Marmaduke Wyvill's stud book. Owned by Mr Croft, he was "greatly esteemed for running, as also for a stallion" [Pick 1:3]. In the stud, he got many good fillies and Old Scar.
|Old Scar (GB) b c 1705 (Makeless - Bay Layton, by Darcy's Counsellor). Sire Line Darcy's Yellow Turk. Family 4.
|[probably Darcy's Yellow Turk] c 1670c (Dodsworth's Dam).
Dodsworth's dam, a Royal Mare, was said to have
been imported in the time of King Charles II,
and at about the time of his death in 1685 she
was sold by the stud master for 40 guineas. She
was then twenty years of age and in foal with
Vixen (f 1686c
Helmsley Turk). Dodsworth sired a number of
good fillies and Dicky Pierson.
Dicky Pierson (GB)
[possibly Bay Dodsworth] c 1675c (Dodsworth). Sire Line Dodsworth. Sire of Dicky Pierson Mare, half-sister to St. Martin (c 1695c Spanker), a foundation mare of Family 2.
Bay Dodsworth (GB)
[possibly Dicky Pierson] c 1675c (Dodsworth). Bay Dodsworth is mentioned in Cuthbert Routh's stud book as the sire of the 5th dam of Hutton's Surley (gr c 1708 Hutton's Grey Barb), whose sister was in turn the 5th dam of Marske br c 1750 Squirt), the sire of Eclipse (ch c 1764). Bay Dodsworth would thus hold the position as the sire of the taproot mare of Family 8 [Early Records:30]. It is also possible that his daughter was the same mare as the Dicky Pierson Mare (above) of Family 2.
|Darcy's Chesnut Arabian
|[Darcy's Yellow Turk, probably Dodsworth] c 1670c. Since the term "yellow" preceded the term "chesnut" (which was then spelled in that fashion) Dodsworth probably acquired his third name later in life. A pedigree in the Newcastle Courant includes a pedigree, which reads in part: "the old Chesnut Turk which got Leeds' Spanker" and under this name [Newcastle Courant 1728-8:March 23 & Royal Studs:94] he sired the dam of Mr Pelham's Little George and his two sisters, both of whom contributed to Family 12-a. Sister 1 to Little George produced Lord Halifax's Goliah (gr c 1772 Greyhound) and Sampson (gr c 1721 Greyhound), both of whom were successful racehorses. Sister 2 to Little George was the 2nd dam of the Derby Looby (b c Pigot Turk). He was not the same Arabian that was the sire of Young Violet Layton in 1715 [GSB 1:18].