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Deep-Rooted Anomalies in Female Families
   
   

Persian





Pedigree Matters

Earliest Mares in the General Stud Book

Equine Genetic Genealogy

Distribution of Thoroughbred Matriarchs
in the Equine Mitochondrial Tree







Deep Rooted Anomalies in Female Families Revealed by mtDNA Testing.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed, with very rare exception, only from mothers to their offspring. The actual sequence of nucleotides changes very slowly over time, especially in portions of the mitochondrial chromosome that are not linked to critical functions. These two characteristics (inheritance only from the mother, & gradual creation of diverse sequences over time) makes mtDNA potentially useful in identifying & validating Thoroughbred (TB) female families defined from pedigrees.

That MtDNA typing revealed multiple maternal lines of descent (matrilineages) in some Thoroughbred families was first reported by Hill, et al (2002). The authors classified these discrepant lineages as modern, possible de novo mutation, and deep rooted anomalies. Deep rooted anomalies were identified in families numbered 5, 6, and 9 (according to the Bruce Lowe system) and confirmed by Bower, et al (2012b). An additional anomalous lineage in family 12 was reported by Bower, et al (2012a).

Bower, et al (2012b) also concluded that, despite the discrepancies reported, mtDNA test results were relatively consistent within branches (or sub-lineages) of families. Their proposed explanation for this phenomenon is that "errors in pedigrees must have occurred largely, though not exclusively, at sub-lineage foundation events, probably due to incomplete understanding of modes of inheritance in the past, where maternal sub-lineages were founded from individuals, related, but not by female descent." However, a different explanation is suggested by the historical record. Three of these four deep-rooted anomalies can be traced to editorial changes made in the 5th edition (1891) of volume one of the General Stud Book (GSB) where family lines were linked that had been separate in previous editions. The fourth deep-rooted anomaly probably originated in the early practice of recording only the names of the stallions in pedigrees, so that even mares that were named when they appeared on the turf were frequently anonymous in pedigrees of their descendants. Faced with two identical sequences of named sires, it was practically inevitable that later pedigree collectors would consolidate different matrilineages into the same family.

Changes in GSB

The 4th edition of Volume One of GSB in 1858 presented pedigrees collected and initially published in nine preceding editions, the earliest (An Introduction to a General Stud-book) in 1791. Few substantive changes to the roster of eighteenth century mares, beyond the addition of a section for Irish Mares, occurred after the 1808 edition, until 1891. In the 1891 edition, possibly reflecting increased interest in female lines of descent, as evidenced by the publications of Stamm-mütter des Englischen Vollblutpferdes by Hermann Goos in 1885 and Familien Tafeln des Englischen Vollbluts, by J D Frentzel in 1889, the earliest mare with a produce record in each "direct female line" was identified with a list of her descendants; also added was an "index to principal stallions in the Stud Book up to the year 1890, shewing the original mares from which they descend in female line." Affirming this interest, another major editorial change was the presentation of a separate section devoted to the "earliest known mares, very few of which have been printed before as brood mares (though the substance has been given in the Miscellaneous Pedigrees at the end of earlier editions)…" Lists of descendants are also given for the "earliest recorded mares of their strains" whose entries occur in the "second alphabet" or in the addenda. Also added was a "Table shewing descent in the female line from an original mare." This shows 3 branches of descent from "1st dam" Burton Barb mare to her descendants, Manilla (gr gr grandam of Blacklock) in the 12th generation, Electress (grandam of Teddington) in the 15th generation, Martha Lynn (dam of Voltigeur) and Peri (dam of Sir Hercules) in the 16th generation, and Bribery (dam of St Albans) in the 17th generation.

Families with deep-rooted anomalies

Figure Family 5.
Eight samples reported by Bower, et al (2012b) came from descendants, according to pedigrees published in GSB, of the Massey Mare. MtDNA results, however, point to three different biological lineages (matrilineages), classified by these authors as
   
 
Figure family branch historic founder mtDNA lineage
5 (n=3) Massey Mare Lineage 19 (Hill's "K")
5-g (n=3) Skypeeper (daughter of Miss West) Lineage 5 (Hill's "L")
5-h (n=1) Ann of the Forest (daughter of Miss West) Lineage 5 (Hill's "L")
5-e (n=1) Belvoirina Sub-lineage 5e (Hill's "M")
Notes
(1) Some number of samples tested (n) are different in Table SI-1: 5 (n=1), 5e (n=1), 5g (n=1), 5h (n=3) (Bower, 2012b; supplement)
(2) Hill, et al (2002) reported "K" in six of seven samples from figure family 19; all her figure family 5 samples were "L" & "M."
   
  Lineage 19 - Found in 3 (Table 2) (or 1, SI-1) samples identified only as descendant(s) of the Massey Mare (earliest known, or founder, mare of family 5). Without knowing the pedigree(s), or at least the most recent common dam of the horse(s) classified here, no informative comparison with the historical record can be made; this haplotype may be anomalous, or may represent the Massey Mare.

Lineage 5 - This haplotype was found in four samples drawn from branches 5-g & 5-h; the founders of these branches were both daughters of Miss West [5]. Miss West's family line was linked to the Massey Mare's line only in 1891; in previous editions, the founder mare of her line was an anonymous Basto mare.

Miss West & her dam, a mare by Regulus, have had broodmare entries, (produce record & pedigree) in GSB since 1791. Their pedigrees were given through the 1858 edition as:

MISS WEST,
Bred by Mr GEE, in 1777, got by Matchem - Regulus - Crab - Childers - Basto.
REGULUS MARE,
Bred by Mr PANTON, her dam by Crab - Childers - Basto.

In the 1891 edition, this lineage was revised to identify the Crab cross as Young Ebony, & the Childers cross as Ebony. An undated chesnut filly by Regulus attributed to Mr Panton was added to the produce of YOUNG EBONY, by Crab.

Childers and Basto were stallions in the Duke of Devonshire's Stud at Chatsworth. Reference to the list of the Duke of Devonshire's horses at Chatsworth, 20 Jun 1729 reveals four mares sired by Basto, as well as numerous currently-unidentified mares (see C M Prior, The Royal Studs of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 1935; p 123-124). The known Basto daughters were Ebony (& foal by Childers), Brown Basto Mare (& foal by Childers), a mare by Basto out of Desdemona, and a mare by Basto, out of Ramsden. GSB, itself, includes three mares by Basto with produce by Childers: (1) BASTO MARE (sister to Soreheels), dam of seven foals by Childers, including two fillies Bay Basto & Brown Basto; (2) (OLD) EBONY (sister to Brown Betty), dam of four known foals, including Ebony, by Childers; and (3) a mare by Basto, out of MAKELESS MARE - her daughter by Childers was dam of Gaul'em, by Starling. Clearly there were candidates other than Young Ebony - Ebony that would have "fit" the sires-only version of Miss West's pedigree. In light of current mtDNA results, the particular Basto mare in Miss West's line is best regarded as unidentified, although she may very well also have come from the Duke of Devonshire's Stud.
   
  Pedigree comparison for MISS WEST [5] (dam of SKYPEEPER [5-g] founder & ANN OF THE FOREST [5-h] founder)
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [5]
(OLD) EBONY (black) - sister to Brown Betty,
Bred by the Duke of Rutland, in 1714, got by Basto, out of his Massey Mare, by Mr Massey's Black Barb.
  [5]
❖ EBONY (or Ebony Mare),
Foaled in 1728, got by Flying Childers, her dam, Old Ebony, by Basto.
  [5]
❖ YOUNG EBONY,
Bred by Lord Portmore, in 1742, got by Crab, out of the preceding mare [EBONY (1727)].
REGULUS MARE,
Bred by Mr Panton, her dam by Crab - Childers - Basto.
[5]
REGULUS MARE (sister to Favourite),
Bred by Mr Panton, her dam, Y Ebony, by Crab - Ebony, by Childers - Basto.
MISS WEST,
Bred by Mr Gee, in 1777, got by Matchem - Regulus - Crab - Childers - Basto. Died in 1802.
[5]
MISS WEST,
Bred by Mr Gee, in 1777, got by Matchem - Regulus - Y Ebony, by Crab - Childers - Basto.
❖ indicates new or substantially revised entries in the 1891 edition of GSB
   
  Sub-lineage 5e - One sample drawn from a descendant by pedigree of Belvoirina had this haplotype. Belvoirina is the founder of 5-e, a branch from the 5-a branch of family 5. Pedigrees of 18th century mares in this line have remained unchanged since their first broodmare entries: 1780 HEROD MARE in 1793; YOUNG HAG in 1791; EBONY by Childers and EBONY, by Basto (sister to Brown Betty) in 1808. The founder mare of this line has been given as the Duke of Rutland's Massey Mare since 1791. With only 1 sample tested to date - although it seems likely - it is impossible to be certain that this haplotype is representative of the Massey Mare.
   
  Pedigree comparison for HEROD MARE (1780) [5]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
OLD EBONY (sister to Brown Betty)
Bred by the Duke of RUTLAND, got by Basto, out of his Massey Mare, by Mr Massey's Black Barb.
[5]
(OLD) EBONY (black) - sister to Brown Betty,
Bred by the Duke of RUTLAND, in 1714, got by Basto, out of his Massey Mare, by Mr Massey's Black Barb.
EBONY (or Ebony Mare)
Foaled in 1728, got by Childers, out of the above Mare [OLD EBONY].
1754 gr f Hag, by [Crab] - Ld Portmore
[5]
❖ EBONY (or Ebony Mare),
Foaled in 1728, got by Flying Childers, her dam, Old Ebony, by Basto.
  [5]
❖ HAG,
A grey mare, bred by Lord PORTMORE, in 1745, got by Crab - Ebony, by Flying Childers - Old Ebony, by Basto.
YOUNG HAG,
Bred by Lord PORTMORE, in 1761, got by Skim, her dam, Hag (Hydra's dam) by Crab - Ebony, by Childers.
[5]
YOUNG HAG,
Bred by Lord PORTMORE, in 1761, got by Skim, her dam, Hag, by Crab - Ebony, by Childers.
HEROD MARE,
Bred by Lord MILSINTOWN, in 1780, her dam, Young Hag, by Skim - Hag, by Crab - Ebony, by Childers - Ebony, by Basto.
[5]
HEROD MARE,
Bred by Lord MILSINTOWN, in 1780, her dam, Young Hag, by Skim, - Hag, by Crab - Ebony, by Childers - Ebony, by Basto.
   
  Figure Family 6.

Fourteen samples reported by Bower, el al (2012b) came from descendants, according to pedigrees published in GSB, of the LEEDES ARABIAN MARE (sister to Leedes, sometimes called Cream Cheeks). MtDNA results point to three different matrilineages, classified by these authors as
   
 
Figure family branch historic founder mtDNA lineage
6-a (n=3) Cream Cheeks Lineage 6 (Hill's "C")
6-b (n=2) Horatia Lineages 6, 20 & 23 (Hill's "N")
6-d (n=4) Constance Lineages 6, 20 & 23 (Hill's "N")
6-e (n=2) Fenella Lineages 2, 8, & 16 (Hill's "F")
6-f (n=3) Testatrix Lineages 6, 20 & 23 (Hill's "N")
  Note: Some number of the samples tested (n) are different Table SI-1: 6a (n=3) 6b (n=1) 6d (n=2) 6e (n=5) 6f (n=4)
   
  Lineages 2, 8 & 16 - This group includes two descendants by pedigree of Fenella (founder of 6-e). 6-e is a branch of 6-d, in turn a branch of 6-b, a branch of 6. Since 6-b and 6-d were tested and have the same haplotype, it appears that the haplotype in descendants of Fenella is anomalous, the anomaly being introduced sometime after Fenella's grand-dam Constance (founder of 6-d).

The other two haplotypes found in family 6, were found in descendants of Horatia, founder of branch 6-b and Cream Cheeks, of 6-a, respectively.

Lineage 6 - Three samples of Branch 6-a have been assigned to this Lineage. The 6-a branch appears to survive to the present through descendants of both Giantess (1769) and Sylva alias Silver (1762). Sylva was not included in editions of GSB before 1891, since she was exported to America and her pedigree preserved there. Broodmare entries for GIANTESS, her dam MOLLY LONG LEGS, and her grand-dam FOXHUNTER MARE were first published in An Introduction to a General Stud-book (1791) and remained unchanged through the revised edition of Vol. 1 in 1891. Until 1891 the founder mare of Giantess' line was sister to Chanter, by the Akaster Turk. In 1891, this line was extended with entries for three earlier dams, and the founder mare became a Barb mare, dam of Old Bald Peg.
   
  Pedigree comparison for GIANTESS (1769) [6-a]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i 5th ed, 1891
  [6]
OLD MOROCCO MARE (sometimes called Old Peg),
Bred at Helmsley by Lord FAIRFAX, got by his Morocco Barb, out of Old Bald Peg, who was got by an Arabian, out of a Barb mare.
  [6]
SPANKER MARE,
Bred by LORD DARCY, about 1690, out of The Old Morocco Mare.
  [6-a]
LEEDES ARABIAN MARE (sister to Leedes, sometimes called Cream Cheeks),
Bred by Mr LEEDES, her dam by Spanker, out of The Old Morocco Mare (Spanker's own dam).
  [6-a]
AKASTER TURK MARE (sister to Chaunter),
Bred by Sir W STRICKLAND, her dam by The Leedes Arabian, grandam by Spanker, out of The Old Morocco Mare (Spanker's dam).
  [6-a]
BALD GALLOWAY MARE (sister to Roxana),
Bred by Sir W STRICKLAND, in 1719, her dam, sister to Chaunter, by The Akaster Turk - Leedes Arabian.
*               f by [Partner] - Sir W Strickland
     * This mare had a f by Cole's Fox Hunter, and a f Sylva, by the Belsize Arabian (sent to America).
   
FOXHUNTER MARE,
Got by Cole's Foxhunter - Partner - sister to Roxana, by the Bald Galloway - sister to Chanter, by the Akaster Turk.
[6-a]
FOXHUNTER MARE,
Got by Cole's Foxhunter - sister to Cato, by Partner - sister to Roxana, by the Bald Galloway - sister to Chanter, by the Akaster Turk.
MOLLY LONG LEGS,
Bred by Mr Greville, in 1753, got by Babraham, her dam by Cole's Foxhunter, out of a sister to Cato, by Partner.
[6-a]
MOLLY LONG LEGS,
Bred by Mr GREVILLE, in 1753, got by Babraham, her dam by Cole's Foxhunter, out of a sister to Cato, by Partner.
GIANTESS,
Bred by Lord BOLINGBROKE, in 1769, got by Matchem, her dam, Molly Long-Legs, by Babraham - Cole's Foxhunter - Partner - sister to Roxana, by the Bald Galloway - sister to Chanter, by the Akaster Turk - Leedes's Arabian - Spanker.
[6-a]
GIANTESS,
Bred by Lord BOLINGBROKE, in 1769, got by Matchem, her dam Molly Long-Legs, by Babraham - Cole's Foxhunter - Partner - sister to Roxana, by the Bald Galloway - sister to Chanter, by the Akaster Turk - Leedes's Arabian - Spanker.
   
  Lineages 6, 20 & 23 - 9 (or 7) samples from family branches 6-b, 6-d and 6-f were assigned to this grouping. These family 6 lines descend, by pedigree, from Horatia (1758-1783). In editions before 1891, the founder mare of Horatia's line was an anonymous mare by Spanker, dam of Betty Percival, by the Leedes' Arabian. In 1891, Betty Percival was added to the produce of the Spanker Mare, dam of the LEEDES ARABIAN MARE (sister to Leeds, sometimes called Cream Cheeks). This assignment by the editor(s) of GSB is not supported by numerous surviving 18th century pedigrees naming Betty Percival. Current mtDNA results do not support the linkage introduced in 1891 & provide evidence that the Spanker Mare (dam of Betty Percival) was not the same as the SPANKER MARE (dam of Cream Cheeks).
   
  Pedigree comparison for HORATIA (1758) [6-b] founder
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [6]
OLD MOROCCO MARE (sometimes called Old Peg),
Bred at Helmsley by Lord FAIRFAX, got by his Morocco Barb, out of Old Bald Peg, who was got by an Arabian, out of a Barb mare.
  [6]
SPANKER MARE,
Bred by LORD DARCY, about 1690, out of The Old Morocco Mare.
*               f Betty Percival, by [Leedes' Arabian] - Mr Leedes
     * BETTY PERCIVAL had a f by The Paget Turk.
   
MISS BELVOIR,
Bred by the Duke of RUTLAND, got by Grey Grantham – Paget Turk – Betty Percival, by Leedes’s Arabian – Spanker.
[6]
MISS BELVOIR,
Bred by the Duke of RUTLAND, got by Grey Grantham - Paget (or Pigot) Turk - Betty Percival, by Leedes's Arabian - Spanker.
CHILDERS MARE,
Bred by the Duke of DEVONSHIRE, out of Miss Belvoir, by Grantham – Paget Turk – Betty Percival, by Leedes’s Arabian – Spanker.
[6]
CHILDERS MARE (sister to Y Miss Belvoir),
Bred by the Duke of DEVONSHIRE, out of Miss Belvoir, by Grantham - Paget or Pigot Turk - Betty Percival, by Leedes's Arabian - Spanker.
HORATIA (also called Favourite)
Bred by Mr PANTON, in 1758, got by Blank, her dam by Childers – Miss Belvoir, by Grantham – Paget Turk, &c.
[6-b]
HORATIA (also called Favourite),
Bred by Mr PANTON, in 1758, got by Blank, her dam by Childers - Miss Belvoir, by Grantham - Paget Turk, etc.
   
  Figure Family 9.

25 samples reported by Bower, el al (2012b) came from descendants, according to pedigrees published in GSB, of the VINTNER MARE. MtDNA results point to three different matrilineages, classified by these authors as
   
 
Figure family branch historic founder mtDNA lineage
9 (n=4) Vintner Mare Lineage 9
9-a (n=3) sister to Mixbury Lineage 9 (Table 2)
Sublineage 9a (Hill's "A") (Table 1)
9-b (n=6) Bolton Sweepstakes Mare Lineages 9 & 12 (Hill's "G") (n=3)
Lineages 10, 14 & 42 (Hill's "D") (n=3)
9-c (n=10) Crab Mare Lineages 9 & 12 (Hill's "G")
9-e (n=1) Maid of Masham Lineage 9
9-f (n=1) Toxophilite Mare Lineage 9
  Note:
Some number of samples tested (n) are different in Table SI-1: 9 (n=3) 9a (n=1) 9b (n=4) 9c (n=10) 9e (n=4) 9f (n=1)
   
  Lineage 9 - This haplotype was found in 9 samples from 9, 9-a, 9-e, and 9-f. Modern representatives of this lineage descend from Columbine (1781). Her pedigree was first published in the 1800 Supplement. Broodmare entries for her grand-dam Tipsy, and great grand-dam Switch were first published in 1808, and for Switch's grand-dam BASTO MARE (sister to Soreheels) in 1791. The pedigrees of all these mares, as well as the identification of the Vintner Mare as founder, remained unchanged through the revised edition of 1891. In 1891, broodmare entries were added for three earlier generations.
   
  Pedigree comparison for COLUMBINE (1791) [9-a]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [9]
THE VINTNER MARE
*               f by the White-legged Lowther Barb - Mr Curwen
     * This mare bred a f by Curwen, or Pelham Old Spot.
   
  [9]
Curwen (or Pelham) Old SPOT Mare, Bred by Mr Curwen, her dam by The White Legged Lowther Barb, out of the Vintner Mare.
  [9-a]
CURWEN (or PELHAM), BAY BARB MARE (sister to Mixbury), dam by The Curwen Old Spot - White Legged Lowther Barb - Vintner Mare.
BASTO MARE
(Sister to Soreheels)
Bred by Sir W RAMSDEN, her dam (sister to the Mixbury Galloway, by the Curwen Bay Barb – Curwen Spot – White-legged Lowther Barb – Old Vinter Mare.
               f by Cyprus Arabian (dam of Ld Lonsdale’s Kouli Khan)
[9-a]
❖ BASTO MARE (sister to Soreheels),
Bred by Sir W RAMSDEN, her dam, Partner's dam, sister to the Mixbury Galloway, by the Curwen Bay Barb - Curwen Old Spot - White-legged Lowther Barb - Old Vintner Mare.
  [9-a]
❖ CYPRUS-ARABIAN MARE, Bred by the Duke of DEVONSHIRE, in 1720, her dam, Crab's dam (sister to Soreheels), by Basto - Partner's dam.
SWITCH (sister to Kouli Khan)
Bred by Lord LONSDALE, got by his Lordship’s Arabian – Cyprus – Crab’s dam.
[9-a]
SWITCH or Warder Mare (sister to Kouli Khan),
Bred by Lord LONSDALE, in 1739, got by his Lordship's Arabian - Cyprus Arabian - Crab's dam, by Basto
TIPSY,
Bred by Sir J PENNINGTON, in 1750, got by the Bolton Starling, her dam, Switch, by the Lonsdale Arabian – Cyprus – Crab’s dam, p 16.
1771 b f (Columbine’s dam) by [Babraham Blank] … Sir J Pennington
[9-a]
TIPSY,
Bred by Sir J PENNINGTON, in 1750, got by the Bolton Starling, her dam, Switch, by the Lonsdale Arabian - Cyprus Arabian - Crab's dam.
1771 b f by [Babraham Blank] (dam, in 1781, of f Columbine, by Espersykes) … Sir J Pennington
   
COLUMBINE,
Got by Espersykes, her dam by Babraham Blank – Tipsy, by Starling – Switch, by Lonsdale Arabian – Cyprus Arabian – Crab’s dam
[9-a]
COLUMBINE,
Got by Espersykes, in 1781, her dam by Babraham Blank - Tipsy, by Starling - Switch, by Lonsdale Arabian - Cyprus Arabian - Crab's dam.
   
  Two other haplotypes have been found in two other branches of family 9; the founders of both these branches, according to pedigree records, were produce of the Duke of Bolton’s sister to Sloven. One haplotype has been found in both branches 9-b and 9-c and may represent the haplotype of the sister to Sloven.

Lineages 10, 14 & 42 – Hill’s haplotype “D” is found in only some 9-b; these are grouped by Bower, et al (2012b) with samples from families 10, 14 & 42. Since as far as can be determined (using Pedigree Online Thoroughbred Database) today's 9-b representatives all descend from Queen Mab (1785), one of the 9-b haplotypes found by these authors is probably a more recent anomaly. It seems likely that this haplotype, since it doesn’t match any other family 9 individuals, represents the late anomaly.

Lineages 9 & 12 - This haplotype was found in 10 samples from 9-c (branch founder Crab Mare) and in 3 samples from 9-b (branch founder Bolton Sweepstakes Mare). Both these mares, were, by pedigree, daughters of the Duke of Bolton's sister to Sloven, by Bay Bolton. 18th century pedigrees, notably those certified by Peter Hammond (identified as Stud-Groom, 1736-1739, and Steward, 1750, to the Duke of Bolton) never extended the pedigree of sister to Sloven to the Vintner Mare, ending instead with a cross of the White-legged Lowther Barb. An advertisement for Achilles (Newcastle Courant, 11 Jun 1757) is also informative. In this advertisement, the breeder, William Carr, of Etal, certified that he had purchased Achilles' dam "of Mr Hammond, out of the late Duke of Bolton’s Stud."

He gave the pedigree of his horse as
 
He was got by the Duke of Bolton’s Little John, his Dam, by Mogul, Son of the Godolphin Arabian; his Grand-dam, by Sweepstakes, Son of Lord Oxford’s Bloody Shoulder’d Arabian; his Great Grand-dam, by the famous Bay Bolton; his Great Great Grand-dam, by the Curwen Bay Barb, which got Old Partner’s Dam; his Great Great Great Grand-dam, by Old Spot, which got Partner’s Grand-dam; and his Great Great Great Great Grand-dam, by the Lowther White Legged Barb, which got Partner’s Great Grand-dam.
  The pedigree of Achilles' great great grand-dam has the same sequence of sires as did Partner's dam (sister to Mixbury): Curwen Bay Barb - old Spot - Lowther White Legged Barb. However, although Carr obviously was pointing out the similarity in pedigree, he did not make the stronger claim that the mare in his horse's pedigree was Partner's dam, or a sister to Mixbury.

The Duke of Bolton is known to have owned a "Chesnut Curwen Mare" whose pedigree was given as by Curwen's Bay Barb, dam by old Spot. But the editor(s) of GSB had no original records of the early Bolton Stud available. The Stud was advertised for sale in 1755, after the death of the third Duke, and again in 1765, after the death of the fifth Duke, by which time it apparently consisted of only two mares, mother and daughter, and their produce. By the time pedigrees were being collected for GSB, it is doubtful that the editor(s) knew how large the Curwen Stud had been with its potential for pedigrees derived from different founder mares to share the same sequences of sire names. In 1715, Mr Curwen advertised his whole Stud for sale, including "30 Choice Brood Mares, 22 of which Mares are the Daughters of the famous bay Barbe" (Evening Post, 3 Sep 1715).

Given the early practice of providing pedigrees with only the sires named along the female line of descent, it was practically inevitable that some separate matrilineages would have been consolidated into single families by later pedigree collectors.
   
  Pedigree comparison for MOPSQUEEZER (1768) [9-c]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [9]
THE VINTNER MARE.
*                f by the White-legged Lowther Barb … Mr Curwen
     * This mare bred a f by Curwen, or Pelham Old Spot.
   
  [9]
Curwen (or Pelham) Old SPOT Mare, Bred by Mr CURWEN, her dam by The White Legged Lowther Barb, out of the Vintner Mare.
  [9]
CURWEN BAY BARB MARE (sister to the above [CURWEN (or PELHAM) BAY BARB MARE (sister to Mixbury), dam by The Curwen Old Spot - White Legged Lowther Barb - Vintner Mare]).
  [9]
BAY BOLTON MARE (sister to Sloven) Bred by the Duke of BOLTON, her dam, a sister to Mixbury Galloway, by Curwen's Bay Barb - Curwen of Pelham Old Spot.
  [9-c]
❖ CRAB MARE
Bred by the Duke of BOLTON, her dam, sister to Sloven, by Bay Bolton, out of a sister to the Mixbury Galloway.
PATRIOT MARE,
Her dam by Crab – Bay Bolton – Curwen Bay Barb – Curwen Old Spot – White-legged Lowther Barb – Vintner Mare.
[9-c]
(Bolton) PATRIOT MARE,
Her dam by Crab - sister to Sloven, by Bay Bolton - sister to Mixbury, by Curwen Bay Barb.
LADY,
Bred by Mr FENWICK, in 1758, got by Sir Charles Turner’s Sweepstakes, her dam (the dam of Shuttle and Syphon) by Patriot – Crab – sister to Sloven, by Bay Bolton – Curwen Bay Barb, &c.
[9-c]
LADY,
Bred by Mr FENWICK, in 1758, got by Sir Charles Turner's Sweepstakes, her dam (the dam of Shuttle and Syphon), by Patriot - Crab - sister to Sloven, by Bay Bolton - Curwen Bay Barb, etc.
MOPSQUEEZER,
Bred by Mr FENWICK, in 1768, got by Matchem, her dam Lady, by Sir C Turner’s Sweepstakes – Syphon’s dam, by Patriot
[9-c]
MOPSQUEEZER,
Bred by Mr FENWICK, in 1768, got by Matchem, her dam, Lady, by Sir C Turner's Sweepstakes - Syphon's dam, by Patriot.
   
  Figure Family 12.

21 samples reported by Bower, el al (2012a, 2012b) came from descendants, according to pedigrees published in GSB, of the MONTAGU MARE. MtDNA results point to three different matrilineages, classified by these authors as
   
 
Figure family branch historic founder mtDNA lineage
12 (n=4) Mother Western see Bower, et al, (2012a)
12-b (n=1) Diana Sub-lineage 12b
12-c (n=10) Meynell Lineages 9 & 12 (Hill's "G")
12-d (n=5) Hersey Lineages 9 & 12 (Hill's "G")
12-f (n=1) Miss Nancy Lineages 9 & 12 (Hill's "G")
   Note: Some numbers of samples tested (n) are different in Table SI-1: 12b (n=1) 12-c (n=10) 12d (n=1) 12f (n=1)
   
  Sub-lineage 12b - One sample in this study is said to trace by pedigree to Diana. However, informed opinion is that the Diana line survives to the present through her supposed daughter a Jack of Diamonds Mare. Critical examination of pedigree evidence indicates that the linkage from the Jack of Diamonds Mare to the imported mare Diana, by the Cullen Arabian, is not proven (see Fairfax Harrison, Early American Turf Stock, volume 1, Mares, 1934; p 165-173). The mtDNA evidence in this case, if confirmed by additional testing, supports as erroneous the linkage of the Jack of Diamonds Mare's line to family 12.

Descendants of Mother Western - The results of mtDNA testing on samples from Eclipse's skeleton are discussed in an earlier publication, Bower, et al (2012a). That paper reported finding that only three of twelve current samples from family 12 shared the same haplotype as that of Eclipse; they were all descendants of Mother Western (grand-dam of Eclipse). Mother Western has had a broodmare entry since 1793. Her pedigree has remained unchanged through the 1891 edition, although a broodmare entry for her dam, the MONTAGU MARE was added in 1891.
   
  Pedigree comparison for MOTHER WESTERN [Eclipse's family]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [12]
MONTAGU MARE,
Bred by Lord DARCY, got by his (Old) Montagu, her dam by Hautboy – Brimmer – Royal Mare.
MOTHER WESTERN,
Got by Smith’s Son of Snake – Montagu – Hautboy – Brimmer.
[12]
MOTHER WESTERN,
Got by Smith's Son of Snake - Montagu - Hautboy - Brimmer.
   
  Lineages 9 & 12 - 16 (or 12) samples from 12-c, 12-d & 12-f had the same haplotype. By pedigree 12-d is a branch of 12-c and the founders of both 12-c and 12-f were daughters of the GREYHOUND MARE (sister to Sampson). This mare first had a broodmare entry in 1793, which was expanded in 1808 after records of her breeder, Mr Crofts, became available to the editor(s). Her dam (CURWEN BAY BARB MARE) has had a broodmare entry since 1803. Before 1891, the founder mare of this line was a Montagu Mare, dam of a mare by Whiteshirt. In 1891, this Montagu Mare was identified with the MONTAGU MARE of Eclipse's lineage. It is possible that this linkage was made solely on the strength of the Montagu name occurring in both these families, and has been regarded as improbable based on the approximate dates of the horses involved. MtDNA results to date support the differentiation of these two lines.

That a line descended from the old Montagu Mare (dam of a Whiteshirt mare) was present in the Curwen Stud, as well as a line descended from the Vintner Mare, is evidenced by pedigree certificates signed by Mr Curwen (see C M Prior's Early Records of the Thoroughbred Horse, 1924; Mr Cuthbert Routh's Stud-book).
   
  Pedigree comparison for CURWEN BAY BARB MARE (sister to Little George) [12-a]
 
GSB, i, 4th ed, 1858 GSB, i, 5th ed, 1891
  [12-a]
MONTAGU MARE,
Bred by Lord DARCY, got by his (Old) Montagu, her dam by Hautboy – Brimmer – Royal Mare.
*                f by Whiteshirt … Mr Smith
     * This mare bred a f by Darcy Chesnut Arabian.
   
CURWEN BARB MARE,
Got by the Bay Barb, her dam by the D’Arcy Chesnut Arabian – Whiteshirt – Montagu Mare.
[12-a]
❖ CURWEN BAY BARB MARE (sister to Little George),
Bred by Lord D’ARCY, got by the Bay Barb, her dam by the D’Arcy Chesnut Arabian – Whiteshirt – Lord D’Arcy’s Montagu Mare, by D’Arcy’s Old Montagu – Hautboy – Brimmer.
GREYHOUND MARE,
Bred by Mr CROFTS, in 1723, out of Sophonisba’s dam, by the Curwen Bay Barb, page 60. [Got by the Bay Barb, her dam by the D'Arcy Chesnut Arabian - Whiteshirt - Montagu Mare].
[12-a]
GREYHOUND MARE (sister to Sampson),
Bred by Mr CROFTS, in 1723, dam by the Curwen Bay Barb - D'Arcy's Chesnut Arabian.
   
  Summary

Three of four deep-rooted anomalies in Thoroughbred families reported since 2002 can be traced to editorial changes made in the 5th edition of Volume One of the General Stud Book. The fourth is probably the result of confusion pre-dating GSB, arising from the absence of original records of the studs involved and the early practice of recording mare lines using only the names of the sires.

© A J Hibbard
   
 
   
  References
Hill, EW, Bradley DG, Al-Barody M, Ertugrul O, Splan RK, Zakharov I, Cunningham EP. Animal Genetics, 33, 287-294 (2002). "History and integrity of thoroughbred dam lines revealed in equine mtDNA variation."

Bower, MA, Campana MG, Nisbet RER, Weller R, Whitten M, Edwards C J, Stock F, Barrett E, O'Connell TC, Hill EW, Wilson AM, Howe CJ, Barker G, Binns M. Archaeometry, first published online: 11 Apr 2012. "Truth in the bones: resolving the identity of the founding elite thoroughbred racehorses."

Bower, MA, Whitten M, Nisbet RER, Spencer M, Dominy KM, Murphy AM, Cassidy R, Barrett E, Hill EW, Binns M. J Anim Breed Genet (2012) 1-9. "Thoroughbred racehorse mitochondrial DNA demonstrates closer than expected links between maternal genetic history and pedigree records."
   
   

   
   
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